3250 Instructional Strategies

Welcome to my journey through the third course I have taken in my PIDP journey. I will be posting my assignments here. All are welcome to read.
Well I have submitted my blog and journal… waiting for the marks… I wonder if this is how students feel…. waiting to see if you have met with the course goals and objectives… will he like my answers…. wow… even as a adult I can feel this way… will post my journal for all to read when I get it back… cheers

Motivation/ Journal Entry #1
The merriam-webster online dictionary defines motivation to be “a force or influence that causes someone to do something” (“Merriam-webster“, 2014) Elizabeth Barkley described motivation as “the feeling of interest or enthusiasm that makes somebody want to do something” and “the reason or reasons we engage in a particular activity.”(Barkley, 2010) These definitions made me wonder if motivation is a feeling of interest or a force or influence.
My work is in the health care field where I am a self-regulated professional; self-regulation comes with the responsibility of maintaining competency to practice to meet professional standards. Continuing education is one of the most popular avenues that nurses use to meet both employer and regulatory requirements, so is this expectation what drives learners to enroll into programs. Can this then be the feeling of interest or when someone is mandated to take a course as they have not meet the standards this could be the force or influence.
Understanding what and how to motivate learners is the topic of many conversations between both instructors and employers. Working as a nurse, I wonder what makes one nurse take course after course while co-workers struggle to maintain their own professional studies.
Behaviorist models propose that instructors should emphasize the positive behavior in learners (attentiveness in class, careful and thorough work on assignments, thoughtful and frequent contributions to discussion) (Barkley, 2010, p. 9) this provides a benchmark for all learners in the classroom to aspire to. Cognitive models of the 1960s brought in Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs where when learners basic human needs such as food, water, shelter and safety are met then the learner can commit themselves to higher learning. The goals theory where instructors establish supportive relationships and cooperative collaborative learning arrangements that encourage students to adopt learning goals (trying to learn whatever the instructors task is designed to teach them) instead of performance goals (preserving self-perception or public reputation as capable individuals) (Barkley, p. 10). In this theory, learners will not have the fear of failure and will learn purposeful and significant learning that is pertinent to their place of employment.
In my practice as I watch my co-workers I can notice how some of these learning theories come into action, a young nurse who is a single mother and sole income provider fits with Maslows Hierarchy of needs theory, where she cannot apply herself to advance her career when her basic needs are not met. While many other nurses’ only want to learn information that is pertinent to their practice. If the learning is pertinent to their practice, they will value the learning and understand the goals of the learning. Wlodkowski (2008) explains that with feedback provided to the learner in a quick positive manner then learners gain confidence and will be inspired to continue learning.
The profession (a force or influence) could mandate the reason that a learner enrolls in a course of study. A course that advances a career (a feeling of interest) could be the motivating factor for many learners. Gaining insight into how learners are motivated will assist an instructor to create a positive and secure environment that will motivate the learner to participate and gain the most from the learning experience.
For the instruction that I provide I connect with the values and expectancy model, which speaks about engagement as an important component. Teachers can increase student motivation by taking steps to increase the value of the learning to students and helping students hold optimistic and positive expectations about their ability to succeed. (Barkley, 2010, p. 14)
When learners are required to take a mandated course they enter the course with a feeling of inadequacy often times have low self-esteem. Building up self-esteem by providing positive timely feedback that allows the learner to gain confidence, make the learning relevant to the workplace and providing supports that sustain the learner to continue with the new learning are some of the things that I will encourage in my classroom.

Barkley, E. F. (2010). Engagement and Motivation. In J. Wiley (Ed.), Student Engagement Techniques (p. 9). San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass.
Merriam-webster. (2014). In Merriam-webster. Retrieved May 12 2014, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/motivationObjective:

Power of Introverts Journal #2
On Susan Cain’s video, book and on her website she discusses two types of personality’s types, extroverts and introverts. How introverts process information and relate to society is the focus on Susan’s material.
Katherine Briggs and Isabel Myers a mother and daughter team of psychologists studied the work of Carl Jung, a Swiss psychiatrist who studied and developed the concept of introverted and extroverted personalities. During World War II Myers and Briggs developed a personality indicator test known as the Myers Briggs Type Indicator IMBTI) to assist women who were entering the post war work force gain employment that they would be comfortable with. This indicator is widely used with organizations today as a way to gain insight on how employees work best as a team, or as an individual. MBTI describes being introverted as, “I like getting my energy from dealing with the ideas, pictures, memories, and reactions that are inside my head, in my inner world. I often prefer doing things alone or with one or two people, I feel comfortable with. I take time to reflect so that I have a clear idea of what I’ll be doing when I decide to act. Ideas are almost solid things for me. Sometimes I like the idea of something better than the real thing”. (Myers Briggs Foundation, n.d., p. 1)”
I enjoyed listening to Susan Cain talk about being an introvert as I am one myself. I connected with most of her story, except I did not go to a camp. Coming from a family of six where I am in the middle, I could relate with sitting in a room full of people and being okay with the quiet. As a child, I can remember escaping my siblings and just walking for long periods of time, or sitting on the waterfront listening to the ocean: alone I would feel a sense of peace and calm.
Susan Cain’s video and the work of Myers-Briggs comment on introverts and extroverts as personality types. The difference between the two personality types is how they gather and process information. An example would be and introvert would think, think, think, do, then think some more, and extrovert would do, do do, think and then do some more. Society views introverts as quiet or shy, and extroverts are outgoing and boisterous.
Susan emphasizes the importance of introverts in society, how introverts are many times over looked for promotions because of their quiet way of being. When someone is quiet or prefers to be alone this in our society is called being shy. Susan described shy as “fear of social judgment” which may be true, but many introverts are not shy and do hold some interesting positions of power such as Gandhi and Rosa Parks both were introverts.
With my job of teaching and working in the health care field, the gold standard is working as a team to provide the best possible care for patients. Susan spoke of this at the end of the video when she spoke of each personality understanding each other and appreciating the gifts that each personality has to offer. Introverts do make up one third to one-half of the population and as Susan stated the world problems are complex and we will need armies of people to solve them.
The goal of Susan Cain is to bring recognition to the introvert and to assist society in learning to appreciate the quiet skills that introverts bring to any situation.
In the near future, my goal is to obtain and read the book Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World that Can’t Stop Talking by Susan Cain. After browsing the information on her website and researching about teaching personality types I feel that it is important to bring the issues of personality types into the classroom so that everyone can learn to appreciate each other.
Classrooms need to allow introverts more time and space, understand that they will require more time to process information, and gather their thoughts. I learned that it is important not to isolate introverts, as they like to learn in groups, just not continuously, as this overwhelms them. Providing introverts with reading materials that they can read and reflect on in a quiet space will support their learning style. Directly asking the quiet student (not in front of the class) if they understood the lesson or if they need any clarification is one the easiest ways that stood out for me.
The extrovert will thrive on group work but will need some guidance to be able to appreciate the learning style of introverts. Providing this education will provide a well-adjusted classroom and a positive learning environment.
My learning is that the classroom setting can be a challenge and as instructors, we should always be looking for ways to connect with learners.

Cain, S. (2011). Enlist in the quiet revolution. Retrieved May 21 2014, from http://www.thepowerofintroverts.com/
Muskingum College (1997). Carl Jung. Retrieved May 20 2014, from http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/jung.htm
Myers Briggs Foundation (n.d.). Introversion or extroversion. Retrieved May 20 2014, from http://www.myersbriggs.org/my-mbti-personality-type/mbti-basics/extraversion-or-introversion.asp

Motivation- Journal #3

Daniel Pink an American author with a background in politics and law, for 2 years studied intrinsic and extrinsic human motivators. It was through multiple studies from reputable universities that Dan gained knowledge of how intrinsic and extrinsic motivators do and do not work in the business world. Dan’s video the puzzle of motivation focused primarily intrinsic motivation.
In Dan’s video what stood out the most for me was when he spoke intrinsic motivators and how he saw them operating as autonomy “the urge to direct our own lives”, mastery “the desire to get better and better at something that matters” and purpose “ they yearning to do what we do in the service of something larger thank ourselves. (TED, July 2009)”
These statements relate to why I continue to take courses and be involved in education. I want to direct my own life, have the desire to get better, and the yearning to be of service of something larger than myself.
When learners carry on their education because they find it interesting and joyful this is intrinsic motivation when a learner enrolls in education because of a mandate or for a reward of some kind this is extrinsic motivation. Dan Pinks video states that science has proven that rewards work when “there is a simple set of rules with a clear destination” that rewards can actually “narrow the mind” that is why they do not always work.
Kendra Cherry educator and writer published an article on What is the Difference Between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation where she spoke of the “over justification effect” where if rewards are offered for something that there is already an interest in, then interest in the item will not continue. Kendra states that providing some extrinsic rewards can assist at the beginning of a learning journey, many times after learning has started the learner become intrinsically motivated to continue (About.com, 2014). On the other hand, rewards will work to get the job done when the learner has no interest in the subject.
With self-regulated professionals, offering a reward (extrinsic motivation) to start the interest in a mandated learning activity could be a beneficial. Often times with the mandated learning completed the self-regulated professional reenters the work force with a sense of accomplishment and continues learning on their own (intrinsic motivation).
For my future classroom, I will give more thought to how I give praise or rewards for learning. As Kendra article includes that when rewards are given to indicate that a job is well done or as in sports “most improved player” it can supply the learner with the feeling of accomplishment, that feeling of having done a good job. This kind of reward boosts a learner to continue learning, that lets the learner know that they are meeting the goals and objectives are what will keep motivating them to continue.
I will continue to supply the learner with positive feedback and constructive ways to expand on their learning. Remembering not to give external rewards for minimal expectations as this could have a negative effect in that the learner will believe that this is all they have to do.
Offering learners ways to direct their own learning (knowing what courses they need to take and why), monitor themselves (create checklists), set clear achievable goals and guidelines. (Learn Boost, 2010-2012)
As the expectation of nurses is that they are lifelong learners, instructors need to encourage learners in the ways of being intrinsically motivated.


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